This article discussed impact of the Shiffin
war to Islamic civilization development, with the problem main during of Ustman and Umar leadership based on that occurred after the death of the Prophet Muhammad brought problems in the Caliphate period. This impact affects the stability of Muslims with changes in the structure of people's lives. In the political aspect, previously the Islamic government system used a democratic political system and then became a monarchic system during the Bani Ummayah until the next Caliphate. The social aspect is the formation of Islamic groups that mutually defend their rights. Finally, the religious aspect is the existence of various religious streams that make Islam increasingly divided. Cultural or traditional aspects, for example the tradition of blaspheming Ali and his family that was carried out by Bani Ummayah and ended in the time of Umar bin Abdul Aziz. The impact of the Shiffin war was the existence of several groups of Muslims such as the Khawarij, Murji'ah and Shiite groups or followers of Ali. These three groups, in their development, provided an atmosphere and dialectics of Islamic thought until now.